IUCN: motion on a deep seabed mining moratorium passed

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) passed a motion on 7 September 2021 calling for a moratorium on deep seabed mining and a halt to the International Seabed Authority’s (ISA) issuing of new contracts for mining and for exploration of mining sites until certain conditions are met. Those conditions include conducting rigorous and transparent scientific research and impact assessments to comprehensively understand the environmental, social, cultural, and economic damage that mining could cause, and ensuring the effective protection of the marine environment.  More information is available in the IUCN Motion 069.

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Summer Academy on the Continental Shelf 2021

The Summer Academy on the Continental Shelf (SACS), organised by the University of the Faroe Islands and the African Institute on International Law, shall be held 12-18 December 2021 in Arusha, Tanzania. Applications are welcome until 1 October 2021.

For more information see here and the programme.

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Webinar: International Law and Rule of Law Approach in the Indo-Pacific Region

The S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) and the Embassy of Japan shall host a webinar, entitled, International Law and Rule of Law Approach in the Indo-Pacific Region, 28 September 2021, via Zoom. For more information see here.

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Vacancy: Research Fellow (postdoc) at the University of Wollongong

The Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources & Security (ANCORS) at the University of Wollongong (Australia) is currently seeking applicants for a postdoctorate position, entitled, ANCORS Ocean Nexus Fellow, funded by the Nippon Foundation’s Ocean Nexus Program. Applications are welcome until 14 October 2021.

For more information see here.

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Events/Calls: Nordic Environmental Social Science Conference (NESS)

The 15th Nordic Environmental Social Science Conference (NESS) shall be hosted on 7-9 June 2022 at the School of Global Studies, Gothenburg, Sweden. The theme of this year’s edition is emergency and transformation. Two deadlines are open: submitting workshops by 1 October, 2021 and submitting abstracts for workshop papers by 15 December, 2021. One of the panels is specifically devoted to ocean governance, and many others allow for marine/maritime themes as well. More information is available here.

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China: revised Maritime Traffic Safety Law enters into force

The 2021 revision of the Maritime Traffic Safety Law of the People’s Republic of China (Order No. 79 of the President of the People’s Republic of China) entered into force on 1 September 2021. This Order was issued on 29 April 2021, and it introduces new reporting requirements on foreign vessels entering China’s territorial seas. The reporting requirements apply to the following vessels:

  1. submersibles;
  2. nuclear powered vessels;
  3. ships carrying radioactive materials;
  4. ships carrying bulk oil, chemicals, liquefied gas and other toxic and harmful substances;
  5. other vessels that may endanger the maritime traffic safety.

An official explanation for the revision of the law may be found at the Chinese Government website (in Chinese). An English translation is also available here.

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Vacancies: UN DOALOS Legal Officers

The Office of Legal Affairs of the United Nations is currently advertising two positions within the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS), entitled, (1) Senior Legal Officer and (2) Associate Legal Officer. Applications are welcome until 29 September 2021 and 13 October 2021, respectively.

For more information see positions (1) here and (2) here.

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Book Launch: Marine Plastic Pollution and the Rule of Law

The Asia-Pacific Centre for Environmental Law (NUS) will host a book launch, entitled, Marine Plastic Pollution and the Rule of Law, 20 October 2021, online (Zoom). For more information see here.

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United Kingdom/Antigua and Barbuda: maritime delimitation agreement signed

The governments of Antigua and Barbuda and of the United Kingdom (UK) have signed on 27 July 2021 an agreement defining Antigua and Barbuda’s maritime jurisdiction. The agreement sets out the boundary between Antigua and Barbuda and Anguilla, a British Overseas Territory. The waters of Antigua and Barbuda border those of Anguilla (UK) to the northwest, Saint Barthélemy (France) to the northwest, the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis to the west, Montserrat (United Kingdom) to the southwest, and Guadeloupe (France) to the southeast. With this new treaty, the Antigua and Barbuda has delimited three of its five maritime boundaries. Only the boundaries with St Kitts and Nevis and Monserrat remain to be negotiated. More information is available at the Commonwealth homepage (here) and at the social media webpage of HM Governor’s Office in Anguilla (here).

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Webinar: How Indonesia Became An Archipelagic State

The next session of the International Law Association (ILA) Mochtar Memorial Lecture Series, entitled, Mochtar and The Law of the Sea – How Indonesia Became An Archipelagic State, will take place 9 September 2021, via Zoom.

For more information see here.

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Chile/Argentina: Continental Shelf Differences

On 23 August 2021 Chile promulgated amendments to Decree 95: Determina Las Áreas Jurisdiccionales Marítimas Nacionales Desde Punta Puga A Islas Diego Ramírez (source), adding reference to the outer limit of the continental shelf and including a map. On 28 August 2021, Argentina’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship issued Press Release 344/21 (source) objecting to this claim and seeking resolution through dialogue.

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Vacancy: Post-Doctoral Researcher at the University of Vienna

The Faculty of Social Sciences (Department of Political Science) of the University of Vienna (Austria) is opening a position for a Post-Doctoral Researcher. The successful candidate will work in an interdisciplinary research team within the ERC project “The Politics of Marine Biodiversity Data: Global and National Policies and Practices of Monitoring the Oceans (MARIPOLDATA)” . Deadline for application is 31 October 2021. More information is available here.

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Vacancies: Research Assistants at Universität Hamburg

The Faculty of Law at Universität Hamburg is currently advertising two research assistant positions (50%), both with an application deadline of 23 August 2021. The first position concerns the project, entitled, TestArtUp – Road Testing Ocean Artificial Upwelling. The second position concerns the project, entitled, GEOSTOR: Submarine Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geological Formations under the German North Sea.

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Webinars: Law & Nature Dialogues II

The Centre for Environmental Law (Macquarie University) shall host the second session of its Law & Nature Dialogues Webinar Series, via Zoom. The first webinar will be held on 25 August 2021, entitled, Conservation Equity.

For more information see here.

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Call for Papers: The Evolution of the Law of the Sea

The International Association for the Law of the Sea (AssIDMer) will celebrate its 20th Anniversary with a book publication, entitled, The Evolution of the Law of the Sea: Celebrating AssIDMer’s 20th Anniversary. Proposal abstracts are welcome until 30 November 2021 in french or english.

For more information, including the list of thematic areas for contributions, see here.

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Webinar: EEZ – Recent Italian Legislation and Current International Practice

The Jean Monnet Chair on International and European Law of the Sea (IELoS) shall host a webinar, entitled, The Exclusive Economic Zone: Recent Italian Legislation and Current International Practice, 3 September 2021, via MS Teams.

For more information see here. An overview of recent Italian law and delimitation practice relevant to the EEZ are currently on the SIDI – Gruppo d’Interesse sul Diritto del Mare homepage.

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Webinar: Streamlining the Ocean into COP 26 and Beyond

As part of The Road to COP 26/CMA 3 Preparatory Lecture Series (Feb – Oct 2021), The National University of Singapore-Centre for International Law, The University of Durham Law School and The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) World Commission on Environmental Law (WCEL) shall host a webinar entitled, Streamlining the Ocean into COP 26 and Beyond, 26 August 2021, via Zoom.

For more information see here.

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Webinar: Will the US Accede to UNCLOS? Should it?

The Yokosuka Council on Asia-Pacific Studies (YCAPS) will host a webinar, entitled, Will the US Accede to UNCLOS? Should it?, 25 August 2021, via Zoom. For more information and registration see here.

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ITLOS: The M/T “San Padre Pio” (No. 2) Case (Switzerland/Nigeria), Order 2021/4

As previously reported, in May 2021 Switzerland and Nigeria concluded a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) providing for the immediate release of the M/T “San Padre Pio” vessel and the eventual discontinuance of The M/T “San Padre Pio” (No. 2) Case (Switzerland/Nigeria) proceedings. Subsequently, in June 2021 ITLOS Order 2021/3 fixed 9 September 2021 as the date for the opening of the oral proceedings. As communicated by Switzerland, proceedings will be terminated under the MoU “only from the moment that the M/T ‘San Padre Pio’ enters the high seas, or the territorial sea or Exclusive Economic Zone of another State” (Order 2021/4, para 7). Furthermore, Switzerland states “the M/T ‘San Padre Pio’ is currently not in a state allowing it to swiftly depart from Nigeria […] remains uncertain when and under what conditions the vessel might be able to depart” and therefore requested “in view of the ongoing implementation of [the MoU] […] the opening of the oral proceedings be postponed until a later date towards the end of fall 2021” (Order 2021/4, paras 5-7). Nigeria did not respond to indicate its views on postponement (Order 2021/4, para 9). The President of the Tribunal, having regard to the special circumstances and views of the Parties (see in particular: Articles 69(2)(c)-(d) and 69(3) of the Rules of the Tribunal) thus:

Decides to postpone the opening of the oral proceedings until a later date to be fixed after consultations with the Parties

Order 2021/4 of 10 August 2021

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PIF: Declaration on Preserving Maritime Zones

On 6 August 2021 the leaders at the Fifty-First Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) made a declaration entitled, Declaration on Preserving Maritime Zones in the Face of Climate Change-related Sea-Level Rise. The declaration recalls the principles of legal stability, security, certainty, predictability, equity, fairness, justice and good faith that underpin UNCLOS and their relevance in the interpretation and application of UNCLOS in the context of sea-level rise and climate change.

The PIF leaders:

Affirm that the Convention imposes no affirmative obligation to keep baselines and outer limits of maritime zones under review nor to update charts or lists of geographical coordinates once deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations,
Record the position of Members of the Pacific Islands Forum that maintaining maritime zones established in accordance with the Convention, and rights and entitlements that flow from them, notwithstanding climate change-related sea-level rise, is supported by both the Convention and the legal principles underpinning it,
Declare that once having, in accordance with the Convention, established and notified our maritime zones to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, we intend to maintain these zones without reduction, notwithstanding climate change-related sea-level rise,
Further declare that we do not intend to review and update the baselines and outer limits of our maritime zones as a consequence of climate change-related sea-level rise, and
Proclaim that our maritime zones, as established and notified to the Secretary-General of the United Nations in accordance with the Convention, and the rights and entitlements that flow from them, shall continue to apply, without reduction, notwithstanding any physical changes connected to climate change-related sea-level rise.

PIF, Declaration on Preserving Maritime Zones in the Face of Climate Change-related Sea-Level Rise (6 Aug 2021)

For more information see here.

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UNSC: Presidential Statement on Maritime Security

On 9 August 2021 the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) issued a Statement by the President of the Security Council, first presented by the Prime Minister of India, acknowledging an array of maritime safety and security concerns, as well as affirming the international legal instruments applicable or desirable in combating illicit activities at sea. Collaboration, cooperation and capacity development were highlighted. For more information see UN Doc. S/PRST/2021/15 and the press release.

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Vacancy: Postdoctoral Research Fellow at University of Bergen

The University of Bergen (UiB) is currently advertising a position within the Shaping European Research Leaders for Marine Sustainability (SEAS) programme, entitled, SEAS postdoctoral research fellow in regulatory and governance challenges related to ocean sustainability. Applications are welcome until 31st October 2021. For more information see here.

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Workshop: Global Ocean Governance in the New Era

The Xiamen University Center for Oceans Law and the China Seas and the China Institute for Marine Affairs, Ministry of Natural Resources, will host an international training workshop, entitled, Global Ocean Governance in the New Era, 13-17 September 2021, online.

For more information and registration see here.

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Webinars: Re-Imagining International Organisations and Ecosystem of International Law Series

The Centre for the Study of United Nations (O.P. Jindal Global University) and the Jindal Society of International Law shall host two lecture series during the fall semester. The first series, entitled, Re-Imagining International Organisations, will occur 4 August 2021 – 24 November 2021, online. The second series, entitled, Exploring the Ecosystem of International Law, will occur 6 August 2021 – 30 November 2021, online.

For more information see the programme (Re-Imagining International Organisations) and (Ecosystem of International Law) and the website.

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Call for Papers: The Duty of States to Cooperate in International Law

The British Institute of International and Comparative Law and the International Law Section of the Society of Legal Scholars will host a hybrid workshop, entitled, The Duty of States to Cooperate in International Law, 29 November 2021. Abstracts are welcome until 24 September 2021.

For more information see the website and call.

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Summer School: EU LoS 2021

The Jean Monnet Chair on International and European Law of the Sea (IELoS) shall host the seventh edition of the EULoS Summer School, European Union and the Law of the Sea30 August – 10 September 2021, in a hybrid format: online and in Genoa, Italy. Applications are welcome on a rolling basis.

For more information see the EULoS website.

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Symposium: The Compulsory Settlement of EEZ Fisheries Disputes under UNCLOS

The Goettingen Journal of International Law (GoJIL) will host a symposium, entitled, Does the Exception Swallow the Rule? The Compulsory Settlement of EEZ Fisheries Disputes under Part XV of UNCLOS, 26 August 2021, online.

For more information see here.

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Moot Court: III ITLOS Competition of BILOS – Judges

As previously announced, the Brazilian Institute for the Law of the Sea (IBDMAR/BILOS) will hold the III International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Moot Court Competition, November 8-10 2021, online. In addition to the call for teams, BILOS has issued a call for judges.

For more information see here.

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E-Course: Law of the Sea

The British Institute of International and Comparative Law will host the next edition of their short course, entitled, Law of the Sea, 22 September-20 October 2021, online. 3 scholarships are available at BIICL.

For more information see here.

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Call for abstracts: The Global Antarctic

The 2021 biennial academic conference of the Standing Committee on Humanities and Social Sciences (SC-HASS) under the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), themed, The Global Antarctic, will be held 18-19 November 2021 in a hybrid format (online and at the Kobe University Polar Cooperation Research Centre (PCRC), Kobe, Japan). Abstracts are welcome until 2 August 2021.

For more information see here and the call for abstracts.

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Webinars: Eleventh Annual South China Sea Conference

The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) shall host a monthly webinar series, entitled, Eleventh Annual South China Sea Conference, with Session One being held 30 July 2021.

For more information see here, and registration for Session One here.

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Vacancy: PhD fellowship at the Arctic University of Norway

Applications are welcome until 24 August 2021 for the position of PhD Fellow in Law at the Norwegian Centre for the Law of the Sea (NCLOS), Arctic University of Norway (Tromsø, Norway). The four year position is based within the project, entitled, Developing good ocean governance of the Arctic in times of unpredictable and rapid changes.

For more information see here.

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Webinar: Intersections of International Environmental Law with National Jurisdictions

The first ILA (Australia) monthly lunch-time panel showcasing early career scholarship, entitled, Intersections of International Environmental Law with National Jurisdictions, will be held 22 July 2021, online. Speakers will address the Ramsar Convention and the protection of the marine environment.

For more information see here.

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Webinar: Stuck in a Strait – The Ever Given conundrum

Twenty Essex shall host a webinar, entitled, Stuck in a Strait: The Ever Given conundrum, 22 July 2021, online.

For more information see here.

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Vacancies: 2022 UN Nippon Foundation Fellowship

The call for applications for the 2022 United Nations Nippon Foundation Fellowship is now open. The deadline for applications to be received by DOALOS (Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea) is 24 September 2021.

The objective of the fellowship is to provide funded opportunities for advanced training in the field of ocean affairs and the law of the sea, or related disciplines including marine science in support of management frameworks, to mid-level Government officials and other mid-level professionals from developing States so that they may obtain the necessary skills to assist their countries in the implementation of the legal framework set out in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and related instruments, as well as to formulate comprehensive ocean management regimes, including within the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

More information is available here and here.

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Netherlands/Dominican Republic: Maritime Delimitation Agreement

On 5 July 2021 The Netherlands and Dominican Republic signed the Agreement between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Dominican Republic concerning Maritime Delimitation in Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) concerning their maritime entitlements in the Caribbean region. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Dominican Republic (MIREX) [unofficial translation] “the delimitation of all maritime zones was drawn on the basis of the equidistance and will be the geodesic line formed by the points identified by their geographical coordinates expressed in the reference system World geodetic system of 1984”.

For more information see the MIREX Press Release (2).

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E-Course: Alternative Resolutions to Maritime Boundary Disputes

The Centre for International Law (CIL) of the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security (ANCORS) of the University of Wollongong shall host the 2021 CIL-ANCORS e-Training Course on Alternative Resolutions to Maritime Boundary Disputes, 20-24 September 2021, online (Zoom).

This course is organized in conjunction with the Expanded ASEAN Maritime Forum (EAMF) and enjoys the support of the US Department of State and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Singapore. A certain number of places will be reserved for participants from the EAMF countries, and sponsorships are available for a limited number of participants from some of the EAMF countries.

For more information see here.

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Call for Posts: Emerging Technologies

The Center for International Maritime Security, in partnership with Lockheed Martin and the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School’s Naval Warfare Studies Institute have issued a call for articles, entitled, Emerging Technologies. Submissions are welcome until 26 July 2021.

For more information see here.

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Workshop: China in the Maritime Pacific

The Maritime Security Research Group and Asia-Pacific Development and Security Research Group of UNSW Canberra shall host a workshop, entitled, China in the Maritime Pacific, 26-29 July 2021, online.

For more information see here.

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ISA: Nauru requests ISA Council to Complete Adoption of Exploitation Regulations

Through a letter dated 25 June 2021, Nauru exercised its rights under Section 1(15)(a) of the 1994 Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of UNCLOS to request that the Council of the International Seabed Authority (ISA) complete the adoption of the rules, regulations and procedures necessary to facilitate the approval of plans of work for exploitation in the Area. Nauru informed the ISA that a Nauruan entity sponsored by Nauru intends to apply for approval of a plan of work for exploitation in the Area in two years.

According to Section 1(15)(b), following such a request “the Council shall, in accordance with article 162, paragraph 2(o), of the Convention, complete the adoption of such rules, regulations and procedures within two years of the request”. Furthermore, Section 1(15)(c) provides “If the Council has not completed the elaboration of the rules, regulations and procedures relating to exploitation within the prescribed time and an application for approval of a plan of work for exploitation is pending, it shall none the less consider and provisionally approve such plan of work based on the provisions of the Convention and any rules, regulations and procedures that the Council may have adopted provisionally, or on the basis of the norms contained in the Convention and the terms and principles contained in this Annex as well as the principle of non-discrimination among contractors”.

For more information see here.

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Webinar: Distant Water Fishing Fleets – Challenges to Indonesia’s Maritime Security

The Indonesia Ocean Justice Initiative shall host a webinar, entitled, Distant Water Fishing Fleets: Challenges to Indonesia’s Maritime Security, 6 July 2021, online. For more information and registration see here and the announcement.

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Treaties: Agreement to Prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean enters into force

On 25 June 2021, the Agreement to prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean enters into force. This is the first multilateral agreement of its kind to take a legally binding, precautionary approach to protect an area from commercial fishing before such fishing has begun. There are currently no commercial fisheries in the Arctic high seas, with most of the region covered by ice year-round. However, with an ever-increasing ice-free area in the summer, commercial fishing may be possible in the foreseeable future. The Agreement to Prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean aims to manage potential fishing in the high seas of this region. More information on this treaty is available here (EU) and here (USA); the text of the treaty may be found here. Previous De Maribus reporting is here.

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Call for Papers: V Congresso do Instituto Brasileiro de Direito do Mar

The Brazilian Institute of Law of the Sea (BILOS) shall host its V Congress of the Brazilian Institute of Law of the Sea on the 11-12 November 2021, online. The submission of papers is welcome until 15 August 2021.

For further information see here.

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Events: Les nouveaux risques de l’aventure maritime

The Centre de Recherche sur les Relations entre les Risques et le Droit of the University of Lille is hosting a webinar entitled Les nouveaux risques de l’aventure maritime (The new risks of the maritime adventure). The event focuses on the risks associated with cyber-security and environmental issues on insurance and on jurisdictional competences, in close relation with the history of maritime insurance. This event takes place on 1-2 July 2021; it shall be held in French, and one of the sessions shall be billingual; the programme and further informatin is available here.

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Events: IUU Fishing Informational Workshop

The Jack D. Gordon Institute for Public Policy at Florida International University, in the United States of America, is hosting a two-day informational workshop on Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing. The event takes place online on 30 June – 1 July 2021. Global Fishing Watch and International Monitoring, Control, and Surveillance Network will speak about the most pressing issues in IUU fishing, tools that are being used to address these issues, and opportunities for collaboration in the maritime security environment. Registration is open here and further information available here.

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Vacancies: PhD fellowship at the Arctic University of Norway

Closing date is 1 August 2021 to apply for a doctoral fellowship at the Norwegian Centre for the Law of the Sea (NCLOS), Arctic University of Norway (Tromsø). NCLOS seeks candidates for one PhD position with projects proposals primarily within the theme Ocean space. Proposals, which aim at applying of law-in-context approaches such as legal geography, are encouraged. Project proposals on the other themes, sovereignty and ocean commons are also welcome. More information available here.

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CJEU: Case C-786/19 (The North of England P & I Association Ltd v Bundeszentralamt für Steuern) judgement delivered

The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) delivered judgment on Case C-786/19 (The North of England P & I Association Ltd v Bundeszentralamt für Steuern). This corresponds to a request for a preliminary ruling from the Finanzgericht Köln (Finance Court, Cologne, Germany).

The CJEU held that “where insurance contracts concern the provision of cover for various risks linked to the operation of sea-going vessels which are entered in the shipping register maintained by a Member State but which fly the flag of another Member State or of a third State under a temporary flagging-out authorisation, the State that must be considered to be the ‘Member State of registration’ of the ship concerned and therefore, to be ‘the Member State where the risk is situated’, within the meaning of those provisions, holding the exclusive power to tax premiums paid with respect to those insurance contracts, is the Member State which maintains the shipping register in which the primary purpose of entering that ship is to prove ownership of that ship”.

The judgement (15 April 2021) may be found here and the Opinion of the Advocate General (27 January 2021) is available here.

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Conference: The Superposition of Legal Regimes at Sea

The MERCO Project will host a conference, entitled, The Superposition of Legal Regimes at Sea: theoretical and practical challenges, 24-25 June 2021, at Jean Moulin Lyon 3 University (Lyon, France). Participation is free of charge, but registration is required. To register, please send an e-mail to gaetan.balan@univ-lyon3.fr. For more information see here.

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India: Supreme Court Disposes of the ‘Enrica Lexie’ Incident Related Proceedings

The Indian Supreme Court, by Order of 15 June 2021 in Special Leave Petition (Civil) No 20370 of 2012: Massimilano Latorre and Ors vs Union of India and Ors, quashed the criminal proceedings against the Italian marines involved in the ‘Enrica Lexie’ Incident and disposed of all related pending matters before the court (Order, Paragraph 7). As per The ‘Enrica Lexie’ Incident (Italy v. India) Award, Paragraph 1094(B)(3), the Arbitral Tribunal had decided “India must take the necessary steps to cease to exercise its criminal jurisdiction over the Marines”. Likewise, in respect of The ‘Enrica Lexie’ Incident (Italy v. India) Award, Paragraph 1094(B)(6)(b) concerning compensation due by Italy, Italy and India “agreed to the amount of INR 100,000,000 (INR 100 million) to be paid by Italy as total compensation under all the four heads of compensable loss identified by the Arbitral Tribunal’s award” (Order, Paragraph 3). Finally, concerning Italy’s commitment to resume its criminal investigation, expressed during the ‘Enrica Lexie’ Incident (Italy v. India) proceedings, “Italy will resume its criminal investigation in the events of 15.02.2012 and that both India and Italy will cooperate with each other in pursuit of that investigation” (Order, Paragraph 3).

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Webinar: The Law of the Sea and Maritime Security Along the New Maritime Silk Road

The University of Zagreb (Croatia) and the University of Macerata (Italy) will host a webinar, entitled, The Law of the Sea and Maritime Security Along the New Maritime Silk Road, 15 July 2021, online. For more information see here.

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